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【中英文】训词和训令,二者有什么区别?


发布日期:1/12/2018 2:46:43 AM
 中央军委向武警部队授旗仪式1月10日在北京八一大楼举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向武警部队授旗并致训词。

1月10日,中央军委向武警部队授旗仪式在北京八一大楼举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向武警部队授旗并致训词。这是习近平向武警部队授旗。

President Xi Jinping on Wednesday ordered the armed police force to uphold the absolute leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Xi, also general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC), made the remarks at a ceremony by the CMC to confer a flag on the armed police force.
中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向武警部队授旗仪式并致训词,指出武警部队要坚持党的绝对领导。

“授旗”用confer a flag to表示,confer多指“授予、赋予(权力、荣誉等)”,常用的搭配为confer power/honor on someone;如果表示“请教某人,与某人商议”则可以用confer with someone表示,比如:He wanted to confer with his colleagues before reaching a decision.(他想与他的同事先商议一下再作出决定。)

习近平在训词中指出:

党中央决定,调整武警部队领导指挥体制,党中央和中央军委对武警部队实行集中统一领导。这是党中央从全面落实党对全国武装力量的绝对领导、坚持和发展中国特色社会主义军事制度出发作出的重大政治决定,对实现党在新时代的强军目标、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化、实现党和国家长治久安具有重大而深远的意义。
The adjustment in the leading and command system of the armed police force, placing the armed police under the unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee and the CMC, is an important political decision the CPC Central Committee made to fully realize the absolute leadership of the Party over all armed forces and to develop a socialist military system with Chinese characteristics. The move has vital and profound effect on building a strong military for the new era and modernizing the country's system and capacity for governance.

武警部队是党领导的人民武装力量的重要组成部分,在维护国家安全和社会稳定、保卫人民美好生活中肩负着重大职责,在维护政治安全特别是政权安全、制度安全中具有重要作用。
The armed police force is an important part of the people's armed forces led by the CPC and bears major responsibility in safeguarding national security and social stability, as well as protecting people's life. The armed police force plays an important role in safeguarding political security, especially the security of the political power and system.

武警部队要加快融入全军联合作战体系,加大改革创新,努力建设一支强大的现代化武装警察部队。
The armed police force should accelerate its integration into the joint combat system of the armed forces, enhance reform and innovation, and strive to build a strong and modern armed police force.

武警部队要始终保持高度戒备,大抓实战化军事训练,扎实做好执勤处突、反恐维稳等各项工作。
The armed police force must focus on real combat training and readiness for war, remain on high alert as always, and better deal with emergencies and terrorism.

在本月初,中央军委举行2018年开训动员大会,习近平主席发布训令。

1月3日,中央军委隆重举行2018年开训动员大会(mobilization meeting),中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向全军发布训令,号召全军贯彻落实党的十九大精神和新时代党的强军思想(to implement the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress and the CPC's thought on building a strong army in the new era),全面加强实战化军事训练,全面提高打赢能力。

习近平在训令中指出:

全军各级要强化练兵备战鲜明导向,坚定不移把军事训练摆在战略位置、作为中心工作,抓住不放,抓出成效。
The army at all levels should enhance military training oriented at combat readiness and put military training at a strategic position and as the central work with effective results.

要坚持领导带头、以上率下,坚持实战实训、联战联训,坚持按纲施训、从严治训。
Leading officers should take the lead and play an exemplary role, real combat training and joint combat training should be carried out according to rules in strict governance.

要端正训练作风、创新训练方法、完善训练保障、严格训练监察,开展群众性练兵比武活动。
The armed forces should conduct training in fine work style, innovate method and improve support to training, tighten up supervision, and hold events of mass training for the soldiers.

加强针对性对抗性训练,提高军事训练实战化水平,牢牢掌握能打仗、打胜仗的过硬本领。
The armed forces should enhance targeted and adversarial training, improve military real combat ability, and firmly grasp the capability to win battles.

全军指战员要坚决贯彻党中央和中央军委决策指示,发扬一不怕苦、二不怕死的战斗精神。
Commanders and personnel should firmly implement the decisions and instructions by the CPC Central Committee and the CMC with a fighting spirit of fearing neither hardship nor death.

刻苦训练、科学训练,勇于战胜困难,勇于超越对手,锻造召之即来、来之能战、战之必胜的精兵劲旅,坚决完成党和人民赋予的新时代使命任务。
The armed forces should train hard in a scientific way, be brave to overcome difficulties and surpass opponents, and create an elite and powerful force that is always ready for the fight, capable of combat and sure to win in order to fulfill the tasks bestowed by the Party and the people in the new era.

训词和训令有什么区别?

授旗仪式致训词,动员大会发布训令,“训词”和“训令”只有一字之差,两者到底有什么区别呢?

《现代汉语词典》中解释“训词”为“训话时所说的话”,多指军队统帅对下级的重要指示和告诫(instructions and admonition)。“训词”之“训”是“教导、训诫”之意。

国防大学军队政治工作教研室副主任公方彬认为,“训词”的本质是领导人代表党和人民对军队产生思想引领(guide the army on behalf of the Party and the people),设立价值坐标和行为规范(code of conduct)。

《现代汉语词典》中对“训令”的解释为“机关晓谕下属或委派人员时所用的公文”。军事科学院专家认为,发布训令(issuing an order)多用于军令系统,作战指挥色彩浓厚,通常是上级首长或机关下达的必须执行的命令,针对的是非常重要的事。


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